In "Kojiki" (The Records of Ancient Matters) and "Nihonshoki" (Chronicles of Japan), the name 'tsuchigumo' appears. "Tsuchigumo" (土蜘蛛, Literally meaning: Earth Spider) is the name of a mythical Japanese creature that is shaped like a giant spider and has the ability to take on human form. Tsuchigumo (土蜘蛛), literally translated "dirt/earth spider", is a historical Japanese derogatory term for renegade local clans, and also the name for a race of spider-like yōkai in Japanese folklore. According to the 18th-century historian Motoori Norinaga, in ancient Japan, Tsuchigumo was used as a derogatory term against aborigines who did not show allegiance to the emperor of Japan. Ars Orientalis 17 (1987): 5-38. The Japanese name for large ground-dwelling tarantulas, ōtsuchigumo, is due to their perceived resemblance to the creature of the myth, rather than the myth being named for the spider. He is secretly a Supernatural, representing and curating the academy's5th School Wonder, the 4PM Bookstacks. Within the precincts of Katsuragi Hitokotonushi-jinja Shrine on Mt. The name frequently appears in "fudoki" (description of regionalclimate, culture, etc.) Tsuchigumo is a Japanese yōkai, or demon. Takeuchi, Melinda. Yorimitsu, despite his sickness, cut him with his famous sword, the Hizamaru (膝丸), causing the monk to flee. Seeing smoke rising from inland, the Emperor ordered an investigation of the islands, and discovered that the tsuchigumo Oomimi (大耳) lived on the smaller island, and Taremimi (垂耳) lived on the larger island. Take your favorite fandoms with you and never miss a beat. at dawn, a beautiful woman appeared and tried to razzle dazzle them, but Yorimitsu counterattacked her with his sword; when the woman disappeared some bloodstains were left on the ground; Yorimitsu and the others caught it, pierced it with an iron skewer, and exposed it to a riverbed. In Kita-ku, Kyoto, Jōbonrendai-ji, there is the Minamoto Yorimitsu Ason-no-tsuka (源頼光朝臣塚) deifying Yorimitsu, but this mound has been said to be a nest built by tsuchigumo, and there is a story that when the tree that was previously beside it fell to lumbering, the logger fell into a mysterious illness and died. https://yokai.fandom.com/wiki/Tsuchigumo?oldid=9586. It is said that Tsuchigumo had a demon's head, a tiger's trunk and spider's limbs. Other than these, there is also the story of Tsuchigumo Yasome (土蜘蛛八十女), who made preparations in the mountains to resist against the imperial court, but was utterly defeated. There are various theories to the story of the tsuchigumo, and in the Heike Monogatari, there is as following (they were written as 山蜘蛛). The fact that the later iterations of the myth specifically refer to the body being that of a tiger, however, does imply that the description was influenced to some degree by the Chinese bird spider, which is commonly referred to as the "earth tiger" in its native habitat for its furry, prominently striped body and aggressive disposition. Accessed May 24, 2020. www.jstor.org/stable/4629355. Meaning: Earth spider: Other names: Yatsukahagi, Ōgumo Type: Animal form Places: Nara Prefecture, Kyoto Prefecture Book(s) Konjaku Gazu Zoku Hyakki: Tsuchigumo (土蜘蛛, Tsuchigumo) is a kind of yokai from Japanese folklore. More American traditional style Tsuchigumo piece by Isaac Bushkin. Oyler, Elizabeth. As times changed, "Tsuchigumo" took root as a word to mean a monster. In the story, Yaso, one local female chief, was greatly popular among the people, and she separated her allies from those resisting the imperial forces. Tsuchigumo Yasome's whereabouts were reported to the emperor, and for her efforts she was spared. Reider, Noriko T. "Tsuchigumo Sōshi: The Emergence of a Shape-Shifting Killer Female Spider." "The Nue and Other Monsters in Heike Monogatari." Umigumo is said to attack humans by spitting out to them. Even in the Kojiki, they shared a common trait with the people of Osaka (忍坂) (now Sakurai city) in that they were "tsuchigumo (土雲) who have grown tails.". Tsuchigumo literally means "ground spider", and… The commander Minamoto no Yorimitsu of the mid Heian era, known for the slaying of Shuten-doji, was brought by his servant Watanabe no Tsuna to go in the direction of Rendai field (蓮台野), a mountain north of Kyoto, where they encountered a flying skull. Among others, tsuchigumo on Mt. after fighting a fierce battle, Yorimitsu cut off the monster's head, and he found as many as 1990 heads of the dead in the monster's stomach; A family of tarantula, which falls under the category of the big ground spider living in the tropical region abroad, was given the Japanese name "Tsuchigumo" after the above-mentioned meanings, but this name was given later in the modern age, so the family of tarantula has nothing to do with "Tsuchigumo" mentioned here. on the next day, leading "Shitenno" (four guardians), Yorimitsu traced the bloodstains left on the ground and arrived at the mound at the back of Kitano Tenman-gu Shrine, where they found a monster spider of about 1.2 meter in full length; There is also a similar yokai called umigumo (海蜘蛛). It is sometimes also called yamagumo (山蜘蛛, mountain spider) and is similar to the Ushi-oni. Another telling shows the Tsuchigumo in a positive light. It is said that every Tsuchigumo lives in a mountain, ties up a hiker firmly with its thread and preys on them. In some cases it is unclear in which way the term is being used. being suspicious of the skull, they went after it and reached an old house, where various goblins and bugbears hideous in appearance emerged and frightened them; This term refers to a common practice among many of the rural clans: utilizing existing cave systems and creating fortified hollow earthen mounds for both residential and military purposes.This implies that the use of the name for renegade clans began essentially as a pun, and over time tales surrounding a literal race of intelligent, occasionally anthropomorphic, spiders grew from this historical usage, first as allegory, then as myth. This word "Yaso" (八十), literally "eighty," is a figurative term for "many," so this story is interpreted to mean that many of the female chief class opposed the Yamato imperial court, and met a heroic end, choosing to die alongside their men. then, Yorimitsu soon recovered from his illness, and thereafter the sword "Hizamaru," with which Yorimitsu slashed Tsuchigumo, began to be called 'Kumogiri' (Tsuchigumo cutter); This page was last edited on 21 October 2020, at 14:55. At the end of a long battle, Yorimitsu cut off the spider's head, and the heads of 1,990 dead people came out from its stomach. Works such as the 14th-century picture scroll Tsuchigumo Sōshi and the 15th-century Noh drama Tsuchigumo envision various versions of a legend in which Minamoto no Yorimitsu, also known as Raikō, a famous 10th-century general and ancestor of the Minamoto clan defeat an enormous spider yōkai referred to as a tsuchigumo or yamagumo ("earth spider" or "mountain spider", respectively). This is regarded as one of the most important and influential texts that depict the conflict between Yorimitsu and the tsuchigumo, and is the source for many later artistic representations. In some versions, Yorimitsu and his retainer Watanabe no Tsuna pursue the spider, which takes various forms such as a beautiful woman, and when they defeat it they cut it open and skulls pour out of its torso, while in others, Yorimitsu is incapacitated and a young retainer hunts the spider down in his stead. this story is also known by the Noh program "Tsuchigumo" in "Gobanme-mono" (the fifth-category plays). Pursuing that trail, they arrived at a cave in mountain recesses, where there was a huge spider, who was the true identity of all the monsters that appeared. Tsuchigumo as a NSFW shunga piece by Carlos Guerrero. Raiko was wielding a sword named "Kumokirimaru" (蜘蛛切丸) meaning spider-killer. The true identity of this tsuchigumo was said to be an onryō of the aforementioned local clan defeated by Emperor Jimmu. [7] It describes Yorimitsu's using the sword Hizamaru [ja] to defeat a yamagumo, which led to his renaming it "Kumogiri" (蜘蛛切, "Spider-Cutter").[8]. The next day, Yorimitsu led his Four Guardian Kings to chase after the blood trail of the monk, and arrived at a mound behind Kitano jinja where there was a large spider that was 4 shaku wide (about 1.2 meters). A commonly cited early text depicting the yōkai tsuchigumo is The Tale of the Heike, or rather some variant texts of the Heike. Tsuchigumo (土蜘蛛, つちぐも, "Earth Spider") was a spider yōkai who worked for Orochidayū. It is said that every Tsuchigumo lives in a mountain, ties up a hiker firmly with its thread and preys on them. Alternate names for the mythological Tsuchigumo include yatsukahagi (八握脛) and ōgumo (大蜘蛛, "giant spider"). In general, tsuchigumo is said to have been short in stature and had long limbs, and to have lived in caves. of various provinces, such as that of Mutsu Province, Echigo Province, Hitachi Province, Settsu Province, Bungo Province and Hizen Province. MINAMOTO no Yorimitsu, known as a warlord in the middle of the Heian period who subdued "Shuten Doji" (the leader of a group of bandits that roamed the region around Kyoto), went with his retainer WATANABE no Tsuna to Rendaino in Kitayama of Rakugai (outside area of the capital Kyoto), where they met with a skull flying in the sky; It's a creepy crawly beast that according to legend can grow to a monstrous size, big enough to eat a person with no problems. In the Nihon Shoki, the founder of the Yoshino no Futo (吉野首) were written to be "with a glowing tail," the founder of Yoshino no Kuzu (国樔) were stated to "have tails and come along pushing rocks (磐石, iwa)," presenting the indigenous people of Yamato as non-humans. When Yorimitsu was bed-ridden with "okori" (an intermittent [malarial] fever), an evil monk of about 2.1 meters tall emerged and tried to catch and bind Yorimitsu with ropes; "Kuniyoshi's "Minamoto Raikō" and "the Earth Spider": Demons and Protest in Late Tokugawa Japan." Reider, Noriko T. "A Tale of an Earth Spider (Tsuchigumo Zōshi): The Emergence of a Shape-Shifting Killer Female Spider." Also, in the Bungo no Kuni Fudoki, there appeared many tsuchigumo, such as the Itsuma-hime (五馬姫) of Itsuma mountain (五馬山), the Uchisaru (打猴), Unasaru (頸猴), Yata (八田), Kunimaro (國摩侶), and Amashino (網磯野), of Negi field (禰宜野), the Shinokaomi (小竹鹿臣) of Shinokaosa (小竹鹿奥), and the Ao (青) and Shiro (白) of Nezumi cavern (鼠の磐窟). They appeared to people as having faces of an oni, a body of a tiger, arms and legs of a spider, and wore giant outfits. And 'Bungo no kuni fudoki' (the topography of Bungo Province) describes many tsuchigumo, such as "Itsumahime" on Mt. so they captured it, pierced it with an iron bar, and gibbeted it on the shore of a river; Various stories about Tsuchigumo exist, and "Heike Monogatari" (The Tale of the Heike) describes a story about it by the name of 'Yamagumo' as follows: When both were captured and about to be killed, Oomimi and Taremimi lowered their foreheads to the ground and fell prostrate, and pleaded, "we will from now on make offerings to the emperor" and presented fish products and begged for pardon. Yorimitsu and the others, who thought it was dubious, started to follow it, and arrived at an old estate, where there appeared various atypical yokai that agonized Yorimitsu and the others, and when dawn arrived, there appeared a beautiful woman who was about to trick them, but Yorimitsu, not giving in, cut it with his katana, and the woman disappeared, leaving white blood. seeing millions of offsprings of spiders rushing out from the monster's flank, Yorimitsu examined there and found about twenty more small skulls. Boulder, Colorado: University Press of Colorado, 2016. www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt1g04zg4.6.

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