Nicholas and Princess Charlotte of Prussia were engaged on November 4, 1815, at a state dinner in Berlin. In 1849, he helped the Habsburgs suppress the uprising in Hungary and urged Prussia not to adopt a liberal constitution. The Russians lost battles at Alma in September 1854. Battle sites and key locations in the Crimean War. However, till Nicholas's last day of life, the Russian Empire was in its geographical zenith, perhaps, with a desperate need for reformation. When he took over in 1825, Nicholas continued trying to expand the Russian Empire, especially southward towards the Ottoman Empire. This is what puts him on this list. Unlike Alexander I, he was not spiritual and lacked intellectual depth. By order of the Tsar, Shevchenko was kept under strict surveillance and prevented from writing or painting. Buoyed up by his role in suppressing the revolutions of 1848 and his mistaken belief that he had British diplomatic support, Nicholas moved against the Ottomans, who declared war on Russia on 8 October 1853. In 1833, Russia signed the 'Treaty of Unkiar-Skelessi' with the Ottoman Empire. The Tsar reacted by sending Russian troops into Poland. The late 1820s were successful military years. 25 June] 1796 – 2 March [O.S. Article is based on: Wikipedia, CC BY-SA 3.0. The group included a young Fyodor Dostoyevsky, and the psychological torment that he suffered while in prison would inform much of his later writing. With two older brothers, Nicholas's chance of becoming a “czar” (Russian for “ruler” or “emperor”) was extremely bleak. A handsome man, he was highly nervous and aggressive. Another group, the Slavophiles, enthusiastically favored the Slavs and their culture and customs, and had a distaste for westerners and their culture and customs. On January 15, 1856, the new tsar took Russia out of the war on very unfavorable terms which included the loss of a naval fleet on the Black Sea. That manifesto named December 1 as official date of his reign start. One group, the Westernizers, believed that Russia remained backward and primitive and could progress only through more Europeanization, which included both adopting European customs in Russia and greater integration of Russia into European politics and culture. The Army became the vehicle of upward social mobility for noble youths from non-Russian areas, such as Poland, the Baltic, Finland and Georgia. Despite losing almost all recently consolidated territories in the first year of the Russo-Persian War of 1826-28, Russia managed to end the war with highly favorable terms. Nicholas refused to abolish serfdom during his reign, since it enabled the landlords to govern the peasants, which the relatively small Russian bureaucracy was unable to do directly. From 1839, Tsar Nicholas also used a former Byzantine Catholic priest named Joseph Semashko as his agent to force Orthodoxy upon the Eastern Rite Catholics of Ukraine, Belarus, and Lithuania. The Decembrist Uprising was quickly and brutally crushed with five conspirators executed. Historians blame the micromanagement of his armies and his misguided strategy for the defeat. This did not please many in the military and with the gentry as they knew that the new Tsar would be a overly conservative one. The universities were small and closely monitored, especially the potentially dangerous philosophy departments. Some historians regard Nicholas as an intensely ''militaristic'' man, who considered the army as the best and greatest institution in Russia and an ideal model for society. In 1825 Nicholas I was crowned and began to limit the liberties of constitutional monarchy in Congress Poland. Unfortunately, Nicholas's attempt to control the Ottoman Empire and the Orthodox population of the Balkans led to the Crimean War of 1853–1856. On the death of Nicholas I, Alexander II became Tsar. Under Nicholas's reign, Russia rapidly expanded its territory by procuring control over the Far East and pushing its borders toward the Pacific Rim. Russia had gained what is now Dagestan, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia from Persia, and therefore had the clear geopolitical and territorial upper hand in the Caucasus. The expulsion of Charles X from France and the November Insurrection (1830–31) in Poland determined the legitimist tendency of Nicholas’s foreign policy. The Navy was weak and technologically backward; the Army, although very large, was good only for parades, suffered from colonels who pocketed their men's pay, poor morale, and was even more out of touch with the latest technology as developed by Britain and France. In December 25 (13 Old Style) Nicholas issued the manifesto claiming his accession to the throne. To cite this article click here for a list of acceptable citing formats.The history of earlier contributions by wikipedians is accessible to researchers here: The history of this article since it was imported to New World Encyclopedia: Note: Some restrictions may apply to use of individual images which are separately licensed. Growing up, Nicholas studied French, German, Russian, world history, and the history and geography of Russia. The Westernizers advocated the European ways and values and believed that his orthodoxy would make Russia backward and primitive. In war, Tsar Nicholas I was successful against Russia’s neighboring southern rivals, Persia and the Ottoman Empire, seizing the last territories in the Caucasus held by Persia. Despite the repressions of this period, Russia experienced a flowering of literature and the arts. Emperor & Autocrat of all the Russias. He wished to become a real “policeman” of Europe, and at Münchengrätz (Mnichovo Hradiště), in September 1833, he renewed relations with Metternich. The bureaucracy was riddled with graft, corruption and inefficiency and was unprepared for war. In the Caucacus, the Russians did not fare much better. In Moscow literary salons, they did not discuss the form of the government but dug deep into the very foundations of Russian history and the Russian national mind. As the third son of Paul I, he was not considered Tsar material. When it was to be constructed, the engineers proposed to Nicholas to draw the future road on the map himself. 18 February] 1855, Nicholas IRussian: Николай INikolai I PavlovichRussian: Николай I Павлович, r, There have been many damning verdicts on Nicholas's rule and legacy. Since playing a major role in the defeat of Napoleon, Russia was regarded as militarily invincible, but once opposed against a coalition of the great powers of Europe, the defeats it suffered in the Crimean War revealed the weakness and backwardness of Tsar Nicholas’ regime. The major European parties mistakenly believed that the treaty contained a secret clause granting Russia the right to send warships through the Bosporus and Dardanelles straits. Nicholas I died before the fall of Sevastopol, but he already had recognized the failure of his regime. This demonstration was an attempt to force the government to accept a constitution and a representative form of government. However the ministry of education had a policy of closing philosophy faculties because of possible harmful effects. Therefore, Nicholas was forced to be the “czar.”. According to a Russian superstition, Mondays were considered unlucky. In 1819, his father, Alexander I made a surprise visit on Nicholas at his Anichkov Palace home. Russia successfully suppressed the Ottomans in 1828–1829. Nicholas especially attended to education; he wished to clear it of everything politically dangerous and confine it to the upper class. Art, Music, Literature, Sports and leisure, Tsar's Finger sliced off on the Moscow express, https://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/p/index.php?title=Nicholas_I_of_Russia&oldid=986251, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License, married 1841, Marie of Hesse and by Rhine; had issue, married 1839, Maximilian de Beauharnais; had issue, Grand Duchess Alexandra Nikolaevna of Russia, married 1844, Landgrave Friedrich-Wilhelm of Hesse-Kassel, married 1848, Alexandra of Saxe-Altenburg; had issue, married 1856, Alexandra of Oldenburg; had issue. Hence, Russians considered his birth a bad omen for the coming days. He was suffering from a severe cold, which later turned to pneumonia due to his refusal of treatment. The European allies landed in Crimea and laid siege to the well-fortified Russian base at Sebastopol. After the prolonged Siege of Sevastopol (1854–55) the base fell, exposing Russia’s inability to defend a major fortification on its own soil. See also Cantonists. The glitter and braid masked profound weaknesses that he did not see. European powers would not admit this protectorate, and Nicholas found himself confronting not only Napoleon III and Britain but also “thankless Austria.”. Nicholas Pavlovich Romanov (Episodes 56 and 57) was born on July 6, 1796 to Empress Maria Feodorovna and Tsar Paul I in Gatchina. Nicholas completely lacked his brother's spiritual and intellectual breadth; he saw his role simply as that of a paternal autocrat ruling his people by whatever means necessary. On October 23, 1853, Turkish forces attacked the advanced Russian troops in the Danubian principalities; on November 1, Russia declared war on Turkey. Nicholas I's hatred for revolutions even spilled over to Europe. In return, after the November Uprising broke out, in 1831 the Polish parliament deposed Nicholas as king of Poland in response to his repeated curtailment of its constitutional rights. During most of his reign he tried to increase his control over the landowners and other influential groups in Russia. Bureaucracy flourished, but the cultural and spiritual aspects of life were strictly controlled. His aggressive foreign policy involved many expensive wars that had a disastrous effect on the empire’s finances. The Slavophiles, therefore, represented a form of Russian messianism. In 1826-1828, Nicholas fought the Russo-Persian War (1826–28), which ended with Persia being forced to cede its last remaining territories in the Caucasus, comprising modern-day Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Iğdır.

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