[3][8], At age 14 Goya studied under the painter José Luzán, where he copied stamps[which?] [45] Goya was tormented by a dread of old age and fear of madness, the latter possibly from anxiety caused by an undiagnosed illness that left him deaf from the early 1790s. He was appointed Director of the Royal Academy in 1795, the year Manuel Godoy made an unfavorable treaty with France. [10], Rome was then the cultural capital of Europe and held all the prototypes of classical antiquity, while Spain lacked a coherent artistic direction, with all of its significant visual achievements in the past. The title of Caprichos is a nod to The Caprices, which were works promoting imagination over reality. Saturn Devouring his Son by Francisco Goya, 1820-23, via Museo Del Prado, Madrid. At the age of 14, he became an apprentice to José Luzán, another Spanish painter, but he wasn’t with him for long as the family decided to move to Madrid. A monk is killed by French soldiers looting church treasures. Ever resourceful, Goya turned this misfortune around, claiming that his illness had allowed him the insight to produce works that were more personal and informal. In most royal portraits, the painter will use symbols to enhance the sitter’s elevated status. [11] He was an unknown at the time and so the records are scant and uncertain. He is considered the most important Spanish artist of the late 18th and early 19th centuries and throughout his long career was a commentator and chronicler of his era. He became withdrawn and introspective while the direction and tone of his work changed. This plate depicts a struggle between a group of civilians fighting soldiers. Lit with a bright, white spotlight, a man holds his hands up in surrender, his innocence exemplified. He married Josefa Bayeu in 1773; their life was characterised by an almost constant series of pregnancies and miscarriages, and only one child, a son, survived into adulthood. Leocadia Weiss (née Zorrilla, 1790–1856)[53][54] the artist's maid, younger by 35 years, and a distant relative,[55] lived with and cared for Goya after Bayeu's death. The last print in the first group. In it, soldiers are shooting innocent people – all men – with the town’s Catholic Church behind them. Francisco de Goya was certainly a painter with a difference. A rare sympathetic image of clergy generally shown on the side of oppression and injustice.[44]. Goya was not afraid to pour his soul onto the canvas, and he inspired others to do the same. [41] They were not published until 1863, 35 years after his death. However, Goya puts a spin on this idea. In his lifetime, Francisco Goya created over a hundred etchings. [B] Modern interpreters view the portrait as satirical; it is thought to reveal the corruption behind the rule of Charles IV. Historians speculate that the Duchess didn’t want the painting because he wasn’t shy about their affair. [40] Goya wrote that the works served "to occupy my imagination, tormented as it is by contemplation of my sufferings." His works from 1814 to 1819 are mostly commissioned portraits, but also include the altarpiece of Santa Justa and Santa Rufina for the Cathedral of Seville, the print series of La Tauromaquia depicting scenes from bullfighting, and probably the etchings of Los Disparates. [42], The first 47 plates in the series focus on incidents from the war and show the consequences of the conflict on individual soldiers and civilians.

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